Assessing my project, I believe that I have delivered a good solution to the brief. I think that my sketchbook, development/research film and final digital image have all shown and explored this theme of body and movement. Researching into past artists and designers work on body and movement, I thought that it would be relevant to include some sort of liquid into my piece as it can capture movement brilliantly. I knew that when it comes to body, liquid moving over it looks brilliant, and that I would be able to explore how different liquids move in different ways. My initial idea, when I was given the brief, was to create a study through film of body and movement, then translate a piece from that film that captures this, and turn it into a digital image. I think that my film captured movement brilliantly, thus allowed me to develop it into my digital image. The development stage of the film was quite experimental, with some scenes being spontaneous, while others where planned out before hand and shown in my sketchbook.

Creative Objectives

My research consisted of looking at still images that showed movement. I wanted to look into how other artists and designers had portrayed movement within a still image. While researching these pieces, I discovered two pieces that I found quite interesting. One of them was Marcel Duchamp’s “Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2”. I found the piece most interesting because of the idea of trails used. I thought that the piece was brilliant as it showed how movement can be broken down into sections to show the overall movement. I knew that this was going to be one of my objectives, to show trails or layer movements. Secondly, when I was researching liquids, I found an image that showed a girl getting paint thrown over her. Once I saw this image, I knew immediately that I wanted to use bright, bold colours of paint in my piece as when it is thrown over someone, it stands out and captures the essence of movement perfectly. After researching similar images and these two pieces, I began to get a feel of the direction that I wanted to go in. My main goal at this point was to create the digital image from my film, which showed body and movement through the use of paint and trails. I believe that I integrated the research into my whole project, from the sketchbook to the final piece, my research was at the heart of it all.


The biggest issue in the project was where to shoot the development/research film. I hadn’t the money to hire out a studio space, then repaint it. In the end, I thought it best to shoot the film in the woods next to my home. Doing so meant that the actors could come into my house after they were done to get washed off, and that there wouldn’t be any problems traveling as it was a short walk.

Technical Constraints

There were many technical constraints throughout my whole project. The first of them was getting hold of a high definition camera that could record the scenes for my development/research film. I thought it best to record the whole thing on an iPhone 4S, for two reasons. First, I already had the phone available, so I could use it whenever I wanted. Secondly, it was small and light. With there being large quantities of paint involved, I didn’t want to hire a camera then ruin it with paint as it was so big. The iPhone’s size reduced the risk of paint damage. Another technical constraint was editing the film. At first I believed that I would have had to edit it on Adobe Premier Professional, however, for the editing I wanted to do, it could all be done on iMovie which I have pre-installed on my MacBook. This meant that I could save money, and use a more simplistic editing suite, thus saving time. The last technical constraint was that of making the digital image. I knew that I wanted to used Adobe Photoshop to create my final piece, but getting a version of it would be difficult. Once I discovered that the college computers had Photoshop installed on them, this problem was resolved.


For developing my idea, I didn’t want to just stick to my sketchbook. I believe that as an artist working in the computer arts area, I must be bold and innovative. I decided to not only show and develop these ideas of mine through my sketchbook, but also through the medium of film. My initial ideas were placed into my sketchbook, which I then developed upon. Once I knew the direction I was going in, I decided to then develop my ideas towards the film. During the film process, my idea for the final digital image began to take shape. It was in the filming that I learnt the best angles, shots and compositions to show dramatic movement. The film also helped me explore how the paint moved on the human body. From thick paint, to watered down paint, every batch had a different feel and flow to it. I also experimented with different materials such as water, rice, lentils and flour. All of them moved in different ways, and evoked a different reaction from each person. Once the film was complete, I narrowed down the scenes which I thought captured movement best. I then created my ideas of how I wanted to translate these scenes into a still digital image. Developing this idea in my sketchbook, I knew which scene would translate best. Once all of this was complete, I then created the final image on Photoshop from points in the key scene of the film.


I wanted the final piece to be bold in terms of colour. I knew that I wanted to use bright colours to have a more powerful look to the digital image, thus making it stand out more. The colours would show movement as they stood out from the background and everything else. When planning the film, I knew that I wanted to have close up shots of the cast being hit by paint as I knew these scenes would be best to show movement, thus better to translate into my final digital image.


I believe that I had a few weaknesses on the project. I believe that my sketchbook could have been more thorough, and that I could have done some more research. I didn’t use as many ideas as I could have. I potentially could have researched a lot more artists and designers, and carried some of their ideas into my work, along side the ones that I had. If I could redo the project, I would explore reactions and human movement. I believe that I explored movement and the body brilliantly, but didn’t combine the two as much as I could have.

What I Got from the Project

I learnt that I have a strength in good time management. I made sure that I was always ahead of my deadlines. I also learnt that editing is very naturally to me. I didn’t have to use tutorials or seek any advice when editing my development/research film. I believe also that in this project, I showed an ability to take something, and show it in its most simplest of forms. I have learnt in this project that colour can not only be attractive and add value to a piece, but it can also explore many different areas. In this project, it was not only an addition to make the piece nice, but it made the piece stand out. It was great to use these bold colours as they were such a juxtaposition to the plain colours of the woods in which I shot the film. I will carry this idea of colour being important into my other projects.


Task 4

Match cut

A match cut is when two scenes are placed together and they have roughly the same look, graphically. The first scene will play, and then when it cuts to the next scene, it will be different, but the graphics to the scene will be very similar. This gives the story continuity and makes it go in sync. These scenes are brilliant as they keep the story going and at a fast pace. A great example of a match cut from Pulp Fiction is below:

Jump cut

A jump cut is where a scene will randomly jump to another which isn’t in order to it. It disrupts the flow of the film, thus making it confusing, or more intriguing. In the film below, we see a jump cut happening. Two men are walking around a circus, then it suddenly jumps to a scene of them on a canival ride. This jump cut, along with the movement of the camera, add to the feeling of the characters being on drugs. We get an idea of how they perceive the world due to the cut and movement of the camera.

Cut away

A cut away shot is when a scene is shot continually, but will cut to a different area of a room. In this the scene below, of the Godfather, we see the man talking, like in an interview. In the background we hear a band singing. The scene then cuts to the man singing, not like a jump cut, as the music stays in flow and continues, it just goes away from the man speaking.

Cross cut

A cross cut scene is when there are two different scenes taking place at the exact same time. The scenes do not have to be in the same area, but they portray that they are happening at the exact same time. Below is a scene from Lord of the Rings. In this clip, we see the main characters battling in different areas, but we know that it’s all happening at the same time, as the film continually jumps to and from each of them.


A dissolve is normally used in scenes that show a memory or dream. In the clip below from American Beauty, we can see the scenes dissolve from one into another. This gives us an idea of the characters past memories, and what he is remembering in his head as he slowly dies. A dissolve is great for showing us the ending or flash backs to someones life.

Task 3

Continuity editing is the method of editing a film so it goes in a natural sequence. By creating this sequence, a film becomes a lot more easier to understand and overall, a better film. The viewer can engage with the film, and delve deeper into the world of it. Below is an example of continuity editing:

As you can see, when the camera is switching between scenes, the characters clothes, positions and background stays the same. This lets us, the viewer, know that this is all happening at the same time, in the same place, thus giving us a sense of continuity. This scene also has the 180 degree rule. The director will make sure that he shoots a conversation from the same side, so that the characters mirror each other. By doing this, we know that they characters are talking to each other, face to face. This also adds to the continuity of the whole scene. For a movie to have continuity, everything must have the same feel and look. Each shot must lead on from the last, unless there is a clear ending of a scene. The only time you can have a jump shot is if you meaningfully insert a clear jump cut. You can’t have a film shot on a black and white camera, then jump to a scene in full 1080p HD colour which has been animated. It would disrupt the whole sequence of events, make the movie seem unrealistic, and ruin the overall continuity.

Task 2

Nowadays editing is accessible to nearly everyone. With 3 Point editing systems like iMovie and Windows Moviemaker, most people can now create their own little films for their own use. Gone are the days when editing was expensive and time consuming. People can now create their own films for basically nothing now, as most of the devices that we use in our day to day lives already have this type of editing software preinstalled. In programmes like these, the user scrolls through the footage and places the in marker. Once they have done that, they continue through the footage then place the out marker, once that is done, they can insert the selected footage onto their timeline. Repeating this process with many different clips, and arranging them in the correct order, you will begin to edit your film into a sequence of shots and events.

Task 1

For a film director, editing is just as important as the shots they use to film their scenes. Editing is not just cutting clips and arranging them in a linear or non-linear order, it goes so much further than that. For a Director, the editing process is huge. The right clips in the right sequence can tell a brilliant story and spark an emotion with the audience, however, if done in the wrong order, the film can lose its touch and overall, what it is about. A Director also has to work with music to help edit the scenes to work in harmony with it. Doing this correctly can make a scene more intense or give another emotion.


Most films nowadays have linear editing to them. This means that the film’s scenes go in chronological order. Most of the time this is through the medium time, so it will being in the day, play through the day and end in the night. This can be on a larger scale over a matter of months or years, but will continue in the same time line. It will not jump about, going backwards and forwards and vice versa. Linear editing does not only go through time, but also through places, if a film is about people discovering something in New York, all the scenes in New York will play, then say they discover something in London, all the London scenes will play. This editing style is popular as the audience doesn’t have to put much thought into the film. Most linear edited movies are easy to follow and are mainstream, which is why most of Hollywoods big Blockbusters use this method of editing.


Normally associated with Avant Garde and thriller films, non-linear editing captures the audience and makes them think more. Directors use this method of editing to add thrill or mystery to a film. A brilliant example of a non-linear film is Zack Snyder’s Watchmen. The film follows a group of retired superheroes in their quest to find out who killed one of them. The film is non-linear as it showers scenes of the main timeline, but skips back into each characters past. This jumping through time not only helps you, the viewer, to solve the mystery, but also lets you delve deeper into the characters pasts and learn a lot about them.

Overall editing is very important to a Director and a film. It can change the theme, emotion or idea behind the whole film. Not only that, but it can give a different feel to one clip, just by editing it in the right way. When creating a film, the director must have amazing editing at the heart of the project, and work with it to create the perfect film.

The Theory Of Perception: Plan.

The brief given is asking me to explore the theme of movement and body. In this brief, I am told about the strive that we have as artists and designers to constantly perfect the human body in any movement. In this project, I will need to use skills that I have learnt in the past year of Computer Art and Design.

Assessing this brief, I believe that the best option would be to develop a short film for research, then to create a digital image from a key scene of the film. This is solely because I believe that film is the best medium to capture movement and the body, therefore, making a digital image would be an interesting way to show movement in a still image. The short film will have to introduce quick cut editing to it, thus, giving it a fast pace, and sense of movement. This will help me explore the idea of speed and movement, which will then help me understand how to create my digital image. The film will rely heavily on people, and they way in which they move. It will have to be short, so that it does not lack interest and carry on too long, this has to be done so that viewer does not get bored. The digital image will have to capture a sense of speed and movement. I believe that it will be best to do this by capturing a person getting splashed with a liquid from the side, and noting how they react.

I am going to call the project “The Theory of Perception” as I want to explore the idea of what colour we perceive ourselves as. It will be my main goal to understand how people can look at a colour and feel that it is a representation of them. I want to explore how we can look at someone and automatically think of a colour that portrays them perfectly. Exploring this theme of movement, I would also like to use the colour to portray different speeds and why we associate colours with different levels of movement. Such as red for advancing, white for being still, and yellow for receding. The paint will also help me show how someone moves by the way it moves around them.

In the film, I want to record a group of people, individually, getting paint thrown over them and in their direction. I think it will be great to explore how the paint moves and flows, then see how the body reacts to coming into contact with the paint. I will have a selection of colours in which I will allow each person to choose one of them and state why that colour fits them. I will ask the person what they associate the colour with and why. One of the goals is to research if there is a possible link between certain colours and speeds. I will choose a scene from a side view and slow it down. I will then select key frames of the scene and digitally draw them. I will alter the opacity and layer them on top of one another to give the idea of movement and velocity.

I will need two cameras to record this from different angles to make the film and a DSLR to capture extreme close ups of the peoples faces before and after they have been hit by the paint. A roll of paper, roughly 135x1100cm will be needed as a background. I would like to use the paper as part of an exhibition if we need to exhibit the work. I think this would be a great idea, as people could see the silhouettes of the people and how each reaction was different through the way that the body is posed. I will also need a computer with Adobe Photoshop or Adobe Illustrator to draw the digital image. Once the image is compete, I will then need to find a suitable printer to print it off.

The gathering of resources and the completion of the sketchbook stage should cease at the end of April, so that I have everything when I need to begin shooting. Along with gathering the materials at this time, I will need to find a suitable location to shoot. Whether this is my house, a studio, or outside is all depending on how much room I need and when the location is available. There will also be varying factors such as health and safety and weather, which will determine when I can film. Filming will begin at the start of April. Filming should only take a day, depending if everyone that will be included in the film is available at the same time. At maximum, it will run over two days. Editing will begin immediately after the filming process. This will take sometime to do, and should be completed by the end of April. Once the research film is competed, I will then begin to draw the digital image, which will take me up to the course deadline.

The project will be done by myself, the only part that won’t be, is the filming of myself getting paint poured on me. As an artist, I don’t want to be completely behind the camera. I want to get involved in my work, and be able to assess myself on all areas.


-Sam Singleton

Walt Disney 12 Principles of Animation.


In the teaser trailer below for Kung Fu Panda 2, we see the anticipation technique being used when Po widens his eyes more and more while slowly flicking them from side to side. This give us a sense of anticipation and we want something to happen.

Arcs of motion.

We see the arcs of motion technique being used in the animation below. It has been used to make the animation more life like. When you jump in real life, you jump in arc, not in a simple straight line.


We see this technique being used in the scene below to show how shocked and excited the character is. By exaggerating the emotion, we know straight away what the character feels and thinks. This makes the animation more believable since we understand it very easily.


Timing is important as it can help establish the mood and atmosphere of an animation. In the scene below, we know that the monkey is sad because of how slow his movements are at the beginning of the clip, and how slow the music is. The animation then speeds up and the monkey knows that he has a chance the escape the prison. The fast movement and sound lets us know that there is a lot at stake for the monkey and over all, it alters the atmosphere of the entire animation.

Squash and Stretch.

In the animation shown below, the ball falls and bounces about. The squash and stretch technique is used to make the ball look more realistic and moveable, rather than static and solid. By squashing it, we know that the ball is bouncing and soft, not tough and robust.

Follow through and overlapping action.

We see this technique being used below in the hair on the second form of the figure. It follows the movement of the walking figure.


In this performance of When Will My Life Begin from Tangled, the main character of Rapunzel is in the centre of the screen for most of the song. This puts her in the main focus, and on the main part of “the stage”.

Solid Drawing.

This principle means that the drawing is more realistic and has the correct port portion, weight and space to it. The image below is a perfect example of a solid drawing.

Solid Drawing

Solid Drawing

Straight ahead and pose to pose.

The image below shows the two different animating techniques, straight ahead and pose to pose. Straight ahead is when every movement is drawn, and pose to pose is where the key frame are drawn then animated.

Straight ahead and pose to pose

Straight ahead and pose to pose

Secondary action.

The secondary action is what goes along with an action to back it up. In the animation below, we see that the tail flicks at the end of each swing. This adds to the effect of the movement and makes the motion more realistic.

Slow in and slow out.

The animation below shows us this technique being used. We see the animation being fast at the beginning, slow in the middle then fast at the end again.


For an animation to work, it has to have appeal. The characters have to be well developed and drawn appropriately. Johnny Bravo is a great example for an animation that has appeal. The character of Johnny is drawn appropriately. He is tall, big and drawn with my straight edges. Which the character is meant to be like.