Outcome One

Video Theory & Practise for New Media – Outcome One

Camera Functions

Shutter button – Pressing this button will allow you to capture a photo or film.

Control button – This will allow you to alter the settings of the camera.

Shooting mode – This will let you choose different scene modes and adjust the exposure, contrast and saturation.

Microphone – This will capture the sound.

Focus assist-light – This light will help you keep the focus is dark places.

Flash – This will enable you to have light in your image or film if there is very little lighting.

Optical viewfinder – This will let you frame your picture and compose it.

Zoom control – This feature allows you to zoom in and out of scenes when filming or taking a picture.

Tripod socket – The bottom of the camera will have this feature so you can place it into a tripod.

Docking port – Allows you to insert a connecter into this port to link it up to a computer to transfer data or charge the device.

Battery compartment – The area in which the battery is stored.

Power switch – Pressing this button will either turn the device off or on.

Indicator LEDs – The flashing lights will inform you of the status of the camera, e.g. if the machine needs charged.

Display – The display screen will allow you to look back at images or footage that you have taken.

Display controls – These will allow you to operate the display, and flick through different options.

Memory card slot – This area is for the memory card to go. All data that is recorded will be saved onto the memory card.

Research film/video making techniques

Point of View Shot

The Point of View (POV) is very important technique. It can be used to engage with the audience and give them a better understanding of what the character is looking at. Taking the perspective of the third person, the point of view shot lets us see exactly what they are seeing, and give us a better understanding of what they think. The thriller and horror genres uses this shot most, as it can be a great way of putting the view into the front seat, allowing them to feel like they are the character. This makes the view feel like this is actually happening to them. It’s great as it adds suspense or even scare. Not only that, but point of view can also let you feel alot more emotion, and sympathise with the character. Scenes that are sad or upsetting work brilliantly with this technique because we understand and see what the characters sees. The shot heightens our understanding of the characters thoughts and emotions, and lets you connect with them.

The ending to Sean Penn’s ‘Into The Wild’ is a hard hitting scene. We see the main character’s life flash before his eyes as he looks up to the sky and slowly dies. Switching between images of his past, and the present, we get a point of view scene. This has been done to make you connect with the character. You are seeing what he is seeing in his final moment of his life. It makes the character feel what he is feeling a lot more.

Mise-en-scene

Mise-en-scene is best described as the way in which the film looks and feels. There are many different aspects that make up the Mise-en-scene, such as props, set, actors and overall composition. Mise-en-scene is very important as it will overall affect your film. The wrong choice in set design, props and even actors could lose you the films overall experience.

Prometheus by Riddley Scott is a film that focused alot on the Mise-en-scene. Prometheus is set in 2093, so Riddley knew that the film had to have a very futuristic look and feel to it. The space ship is apparently the best of its kind, and is meant to cost a trillion dollars to build. All of these factors indicate that the set, props and overall look of the film had to feel and look very futuristic. In one scene we see the ship begin to descend into the planet that it has been heading for. The crew are woken up from their hibernating state, and begin to land the ship. This scene in particular is brilliant for the mise-en-scene as it looks very high tech. Not only that, but the crew are all in their positions doing their jobs correctly and playing their parts. This gives the perfect look and atmosphere, which shows that the mise-en-scene is right on par.

Tracking Shot

Tracking shots are mainly used to give us a scope of an area or environment. We normally see a person or an object moving with the camera moving the the same direction as them. We get a sense of where the character or object is going. When tracking a person, we also connect with that character, as most tracking shots show you their face or what the character is looking at, if the tracking shot is following behind them.

In the Shining, Stanley Kubrick uses many different camera movements to effect screen movement. In the iconic scene where Danny is cycling around the house in his tricycle, we get a tracking shot. The shot follows Danny right around the house. In this scene we get a sense and scope of how large the house is. This scene not only mirrors that of the maze scene, in which Jack chases Danny through the maze to kill him, but also gives us an idea of how intricate the house is. With all the corridors and rooms, the house is meant to be a parallel of the maze, and getting lost in the maze of your mind is one of the many themes that Kubrick portrays through the whole film. This scene of Danny on his tricycle is so important to the film. The camera movements are deliberate, and have been carefully planned. Nowhere in the scene does the camera cut, it is completely continuous. By having it as a continuous scene, we get the idea of time and how long it is, which is a reflection of how the characters feel, that time is extremely slow and eating away at them. The fact that the camera follows Danny from behind gives us a sense that he is being chased, which again has been done to back up the maze scene. Another important scene in the film is the opening scene. We see a car driving through a vast mountain terrain, through winding roads and forest areas. The camera, again, follows the car, this time from a far. This has been done to show us that the characters, at this point, are free as the camera is at a distance, so they aren’t trapped, but are entering the maze. The winding roads represent the walkways of a maze and the forest represents the hedges which enclose the characters within it.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lvwSi7ta0P4

Research film/video art

Andy Warhol

The late Andy Warhol was not only an artist in the traditional sense. He wasn’t just a painter, he also delved into many different areas of art and design. The main area that Warhol chose to explore, after painting, was film. One of his most famous and influential films was ‘Blowjob’. The film shows a man’s upper half while he is receiving a blowjob. The film is brilliant as we not only see the characters reactions, but we also get to observe what a person does in a state of pleasure. We see that the character enjoys what is happening, but sometimes realises that the camera is there, then he falls back into pleasure and forgets about the camera. It is an interesting observation as we see the reactions of someone. This idea of reactions is something that I was influenced by, and wanted to carry over into my film. The idea of how a person moves or reacts to something interested me alot.

Marina Abramović’s

Marina Abramović’s is a contemporary performance artist. Pushing the boundaries of what we consider art, Abramović’s work has became very controversial. Most of her pieces include some high level of risk. In her piece ‘Rhythm 10, 1973’, Abramović filmed herself with twenty knives sitting in front of her. One at a time, she lifted a knife, and slammed it into the spaces between her fingers. By the end of the film, as you can image, there was a lot of blood involved. The piece is beautiful because of the sound. The rhythm of the thuds of the knife slamming down works brilliantly. I wanted to carry this idea of something moving fast into my own film. I love how the knife moved, and the speed that it moved it. This idea inspired me a lot, so I knew that I wanted fast movement in my piece.

Task 6

The Point of View (POV) is very important technique. It can be used to engage with the audience and give them a better understanding of what the character is looking at. Taking the perspective of the third person, the point of view shot lets us see exactly what they are seeing, and give us a better understanding of what they think. The thriller and horror genres uses this shot most, as it can be a great way of putting the view into the front seat, allowing them to feel like they are the character. This makes the view feel like this is actually happening to them. It’s great as it adds suspense or even scare.

A brilliant example of a point of view shot is the one used in Goodfellas. Walking through the restaurant we get a sense of the atmosphere and of who the character is. We know that each person who looks at the camera recognises the character as they smile and nod. We see their reactions to him, which let us know that they know him. It makes us feel like we are the character as we are seeing what he sees.

Another fantastic example is one the of point of view shots used in Enter The Void. This is the only scene in the film in which you get to see the main character. For that reason alone, the scene is very important. The scene is also great as it has been filmed perfectly, that you actually think that you are seeing this through the characters eyes, not through a camera.

The ending to Into The Wild is a hard hitting scene. We see the main character’s life flash before his eyes as he looks up to the sky and slowly dies. Switching between images of his past, and the present, we get a point of view scene. This has been done to make you connect with the character. You are seeing what he is seeing in his final moment of his life. It makes the character feel what he is feeling a lot more.

Outcome 3

Technology now plays a major part in the fashion industry. With almost every label and designer having their own website in which they show collections, post influences and sell clothes. Since the digital age, shopping as changed drastically. Almost anything can now be bought online, and clothing is now exception. Companies like ASOS can now exist without having to have any true retail space, everything can be done online. Not only this, but technology has impacted the shoppers experience. The days of a shopping experience starting from the moment you walk into the shop is gone. Nowadays shoppers don’t even have to leave their bed to immerse themselves in a fantastic shopping experience. Websites such as Alexander Mcqueen, Versace, Christian Louboutin have created websites that are brilliantly interactive. Customers can go onto the websites and enjoy themselves while surfing. With the advancement of technologies like 360 degree views, the shopper can not only see a quick look of the product, but view it from every possible angel, to know if it’s right for them.

The legal side of the fashion industry can be very difficult, as each country has its own different and unique laws. From types of fabrics being used, such a fur, to the pay in which some workers earn in third world countries, the fashion industry is extremely controversial. The hourly rate for workers in some factories in third world countries is less than fifty pence per hour. The terrible truth is that these workers will not rise up and do something about it, as the jobs bring in up to almost 80% of the income for the country in places like bangladesh. This price is not only shocking as it is so low, but it denys the workers their basic human rights. People working for these companies cannot even afford food, proper hosing or even water. There are organisations out there that are helping fight towards making a better working environment and fairer wages for these types of people. The Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI) is one of these organisations.

In fashion retail shops in Britain, health and safety is very important. Employees are often given health and safety handbooks which they have to learn within the first few weeks of starting a new position. The employer must make sure that the employee fully knows the health and safety laws and regulations of the country and of the company. It is the employers duty to make sure that all members of staff stick the the guidelines all times. Most health and safety practises in fashion retail shops are straightforward and logical, for example, when there is a spillage on the floor, an employee must get another employee to stand at the wet area and tell customers about it, while the other employee goes to collect a mop. Once the wet area is mopped up, the employee must put down a wet floor sign so that all customers know that the area is still damp. Once the area is dry, the employee can remove the sign. Another logical law that must be adhered to is that all employees on shop floor cannot leave a ladder out unattended. If a ladder is left out unattended, a small child could potentially walk up it, then fall. This could cause serious harm to the child, and the parents could seek legal advice. In Britain, all companies must adhere to HASAWA (The Health and Safety At Work Act 1974).

The biggest organisation in British in British fashion industry is The British Fashion Council (BFC). The BFC help to put on runway shows of British fashion designers that are upcoming. The BFC are at the forefront of London Fashion Week. They helped to make London Fashion Week on the the main four fashion weeks in the world, along with Milan, Paris and New York. The BFC help graduating fashion students get into the fashion world. Financial support organisations based in Britian that help people in the fashion world are MA Scholarship and Fashion Forward. Organisations like these help budding young fashion designers financially. They not only do that, they also run competitions and seminars for the individuals so their knowledge and creativity can grow.

Bibliography

 

Creative Industries 2

The fashion industry in the United Kingdom is vast. With London hosting one of the major fashion weeks of the year, every year, Britain has became a leader in world fashion. With design studios such as Alexander McQueen, Vivienne Westwood, Paul Smith and Philip Treacy, britain’s foothold on the fashion industry has grown substantially since the eighties. Not only is the British fashion industry full of couture labels, it is also full of brilliant high street brands, such as Topman, Burton, Dorothy Perkins, River Island, Next and Debenhams. The fashion industry in the United Kingdom has many different jobs, such as:

  • Accessory Designers
  • Accessory Designer Assistant
  • Advertising Assistant
  • Advertising Manager
  • Art Director
  • Blog Editor
  • Brand Managers
  • Bridal Managers
  • Bridal Designers
  • Business Manager
  • Buyer’s Assistant
  • Buyers
  • Buyers Administration
  • Catwalk Model
  • Clippers
  • Clothing Fit Model
  • Costume Designer Assistants
  • Cutters
  • Designers Assistant
  • Distribution Administration
  • Distribution Managers
  • Event Planners
  • Event Planners Assistant
  • Export Coordinates
  • Fabric Designer
  • Fabric Designer Assistant
  • Fabric Wholesaler
  • Fashion Commentators
  • Fashion Designers
  • Fashion Event Coordinates
  • Fashion Illustrator
  • Fashion Journalists
  • Fashion Magazine Editor
  • Fashion Magazine Editorial Staff
  • Fashion Photographer
  • Fashion Photographer Assistant
  • Fashion Sales Representative
  • Fashion Show Coordinator
  • Fashion Website Designer
  • Finance Administration
  • Finance Directors
  • Footwear Designers
  • Garment Technician
  • Import Coordinators
  • Internet Marketing Assistant
  • Internet Marketing Manager
  • Jewellery Designers
  • Machinists
  • Magazine Model
  • Marketing Administration
  • Marketing Assistants
  • Marketing Directors
  • Merchandise Planner
  • Merchandise Planner Assistant
  • Merchandise Planners
  • Merchandise Planners Assistant
  • Milliner Designers
  • Online Editor
  • Pattern Makers Assistant
  • Patters Makers
  • Product Developers
  • Public relations Assistants
  • Public Relations Managers
  • Recruitment Administration
  • Recruitment Managers
  • Retail Assistants
  • Retail Managers
  • Sample Cutters
  • Sewers
  • Stylists
  • Stylists Assistant
  • Tailor
  • Warehouse Staff
  • Window Display Designers
  • Window Display Designers Assistant

All of these jobs involve a lot of work, time and creativity. I have chosen the role of a Retail Assistant to investigate.

The position is either demanding or very flexible on time that you can work. Senior sales will normally work an average of 35-40 hours a week, with days varying each week, however, part time sales will normally only work a couple of short shifts a week, and can sometimes choose which days they want to work. Not only does a retail sales assistant help with the selling of clothes, they can also have many creative jobs and duties throughout their day. Many retail sales assistants will have to help with creating displays, fashioning outfits together for body forms and assist in add on sales, which require knowing what pieces work best together. The job duty can be very demanding as it not only do you have to think with a business brain, to meet sales targets, but also with a creative brain to create good shop-ability for the customer.

The fashion industry is a great industry for creative people to work in. For those who either want to be self employed or employed by a company. Self employment is difficult to begin with, but once you begin to create, and gather a foothold, the rewards can be worth it. Many fashion designers start off self employed, doing one off jobs for design companies or through commissions.

The fashion retail industry in Britain makes up a huge number of employment. With 2.9 million people working in the industry by the end of 2009, a total of 11% of employed people in the United Kingdom going to it. This level of employment is to cope with the amount of money that the fashion retail industry brings in, with a total of £41,054 million being spent on the industry.

Bibliography

Editor

Having a good editor is at the heart of every movie. An editors job can just be as important as a directors. It is true that the editor can manipulate a film and its effect by editing different clips or scenes together in the right way, however, this can only happen if the editor has the right clips at his or hers disposal. The editor has to have these clips in place, and must know what clips work together brilliantly, to get the best result. Longside that, the editor must share the same vision as the director, as at the end of the day, the film has to be unique and give the right image and feel. The editor must know why the director has chosen to films scenes certain ways and why they have chosen certain techniques, as without knowing this, the film will not have the right feel that the director was aiming for.

Angus Alexander Wall

Angus Alexander Wall, born March 15th 1967, is a film editor that works on my edgy, mainstream films. His most famous works include Seven (1995), Panic Room (2002), The Social Network (2010) and The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2011). Wall is a brilliant editor, as he works alongside the director, in harmony to produce the perfect film. Not only that, he captures the directors vision, and follows it through in his editing, so that the film as the right feel and the themes run right through it.

Panic Room (2002)

Wall knew that this film has to not only be edgy, and mirror the scope of technology used in the film, but also had to be a classic thriller. The film was to stay away from the horror sides, and focus on the more racy and edgy scenes. For this, Wall knew that he had to make the film fast cut and have lots of suspense, as to keep the view on the edge of their seat. In Panic Room, the house used is very stylised and modern. With the Panic Room itself being at the heart of the film, Wall needed to help portray this sense of high end technology being uses. He done this through brilliant edit sweeps and contrast editing, to add to the look of the Panic Room. The opening scene works perfectly as it gives a sense of a clock ticking away. By using this technique, the viewer knows that this movie is going to be about timing and the clock counting down.

The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2011)

When directing The Girl With The Dragon Tattoo, David Fincher knew that he had to make the film very stylised and edgy as possible. The film had to have a very dark atmosphere to it, along with mystery. Wall knew Finchers vision, and tried to follow that vision through, right to the final piece. Wall used very fast cut editing to the film, along with long scenes to add suspense. This made the film very racy and jumpy, with the being on the edge. Fincher and Wall worked brilliantly together on this collaboration and made one of the most successful films of 2011. They work perfectly together at creating thrillers. In the opening scene below, we can see some techniques that Wall used to create this thriller feel.

The Social Network (2010)

For this film, Fincher again relied on the help of Wall. The two had worked so brilliantly in the past that he knew Wall wouldn’t let him down, nor disappoint. The two were working on new territory as they were so used to doing thrillers together, now they had to do a drama that was based on true events. Fincher didn’t want to bend any of the truth behind the film, and wanted to stay as true as possible to each characters roles and pasts. Wall knew that Fincher wanted to do this, and kept true to his vision. Editing the film, Wall almost made the film seem like a very hard hitting dramatic documentary. In one of the scenes, we see the character of Mark Zuckerberg in a boardroom talking to many different people. The viewer thinks that it is one long scene, however, the true events were that Zuckerberg was in two boardrooms. With Fincher wanting to stay true to the story, he shot two completely different scenes, in two completely different boardrooms. The brilliant thing about Wall is, that he edited the scenes side by side, to give the illusion of them being in the same room. This meant that he could pick the best key point from each scene and put them into one, thus creating an overall better scene. Wall didn’t bend the truth here as you can see that the scenes have been edited together, but they give the illusion that it is one boardroom.

Task 7

I believe that shooting techniques are very important to an editor. It is true that the editor can manipulate a film and its effect by editing different clips or scenes together in the right way, however, this can only happen if the editor has the right clips at his or hers disposal. The editor has to have these clips in place, and must know what clips work together brilliantly, to get the best result. Longside that, the editor must share the same vision as the director, as at the end of the day, the film has to be unique and give the right image and feel. The editor must know why the director has chosen to films scenes certain ways and why they have chosen certain techniques, as without knowing this, the film will not have the right feel that the director was aiming for.

Task 5

Shot/reverse shot is a very important rule and technique that has to be followed and used when editing. It uses both the 180 degree rule and the eye level rule. Shot reverse shot is defined as this:

“A film technique wherein one character is shown looking (often off-screen) at another character, and then the other character is shown looking “back” at the first character. Since the characters are shown facing in opposite directions, the viewer unconsciously assumes that they are looking at each other.”

-Bordwell, David; Thompson, Kristin (2006). Film Art: An Introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill.

An example of Shot/Reverse Shot

Above is an example of Shot/Reverse Shot.

Shot/Reverse Shot is used in the majority of films. It helps the viewer understand the scenes and where the movie is going, by using dialogue and keeping the dialogue continuous.

Below is a scene that perfectly shows the technique of Shot/Reverse Shot from the film Light Sleeper:

Another great example of Shot/Reverse shot is in Rocky:

In the Shining, Stanley Kubrick uses a Shot/Reverse Shot in the interview scene as seen below”