Walt Disney 12 Principles of Animation.


In the teaser trailer below for Kung Fu Panda 2, we see the anticipation technique being used when Po widens his eyes more and more while slowly flicking them from side to side. This give us a sense of anticipation and we want something to happen.

Arcs of motion.

We see the arcs of motion technique being used in the animation below. It has been used to make the animation more life like. When you jump in real life, you jump in arc, not in a simple straight line.


We see this technique being used in the scene below to show how shocked and excited the character is. By exaggerating the emotion, we know straight away what the character feels and thinks. This makes the animation more believable since we understand it very easily.


Timing is important as it can help establish the mood and atmosphere of an animation. In the scene below, we know that the monkey is sad because of how slow his movements are at the beginning of the clip, and how slow the music is. The animation then speeds up and the monkey knows that he has a chance the escape the prison. The fast movement and sound lets us know that there is a lot at stake for the monkey and over all, it alters the atmosphere of the entire animation.

Squash and Stretch.

In the animation shown below, the ball falls and bounces about. The squash and stretch technique is used to make the ball look more realistic and moveable, rather than static and solid. By squashing it, we know that the ball is bouncing and soft, not tough and robust.

Follow through and overlapping action.

We see this technique being used below in the hair on the second form of the figure. It follows the movement of the walking figure.


In this performance of When Will My Life Begin from Tangled, the main character of Rapunzel is in the centre of the screen for most of the song. This puts her in the main focus, and on the main part of “the stage”.

Solid Drawing.

This principle means that the drawing is more realistic and has the correct port portion, weight and space to it. The image below is a perfect example of a solid drawing.

Solid Drawing

Solid Drawing

Straight ahead and pose to pose.

The image below shows the two different animating techniques, straight ahead and pose to pose. Straight ahead is when every movement is drawn, and pose to pose is where the key frame are drawn then animated.

Straight ahead and pose to pose

Straight ahead and pose to pose

Secondary action.

The secondary action is what goes along with an action to back it up. In the animation below, we see that the tail flicks at the end of each swing. This adds to the effect of the movement and makes the motion more realistic.

Slow in and slow out.

The animation below shows us this technique being used. We see the animation being fast at the beginning, slow in the middle then fast at the end again.


For an animation to work, it has to have appeal. The characters have to be well developed and drawn appropriately. Johnny Bravo is a great example for an animation that has appeal. The character of Johnny is drawn appropriately. He is tall, big and drawn with my straight edges. Which the character is meant to be like.



Interactive Animation.

Below is a video of the interactive animation “Starry Night”. The video shows the animation working. It’s very simple and easy to use, all you do is touch, swipe and slide different parts of the painting for it to move and alter.

The Loop.

The loop technique is a great way of saving time when creating an animation. It allows the animators to reuse already made material, and not have to create new material. The most famous loops in animation are used in the classic Scooby Doo series.

In the scene above, we see a usual scene of Scooby and Shaggy running away from the villain. There is a loop here with the background. It is constantly repeated and gives us a sense that the characters are running a long distance.

Another classic that uses the loop technique is Road Runner. The background, like Scooby Doo is repeated to give us a sense that they are running for a very long time and over a far distance.


There are many metaphors in this short animation. One of which is that the couple’s life is like a nuclear war. The TV shows images of the ongoing war outside, which is a representation and parallel between that and the couples life. The image of the sad face and nuclear explosion shows us how the couple feels. They are sad and always at war with one another.

Another metaphor is the picture near the end of the clip. It is an old photograph in black and white. It shows you what the photo looked like in the past. It is full of colour. The love hearts around the photo used to be in colour, which show that the couple used to be in love.


Here is an example of a metamorphosis animation that I found on YouTube. The amination is very simple as it is just objects that morph into other objects. We see that the metamorphosis doesn’t have to be anything elaborate, infact it is better for the objects to be simplified.

Here is another example of a metamorphosis animation. The animation again, like many other metamorphosis animations, has no true story. It is random objects turning into other random objects. I like how the music works along side it, sounds like random noises.

Is a brilliant metamorphosis. It is beautiful because of the style of the drawings, but also because of how simple it is. There is no elaborate detail, it is simply amazing to watch because of how simple it is.

12 Principles Adapted To The Computer.

Timing – This has been used to show the age difference between the lamps. The older lamp takes more time, whereas the younger lamp does. This lets us know the age difference between the lamps.

Arcs of motion – The smaller lamp uses this technique when jumping on the ball. It is a perfect arc, just like how someone would jump in real life, which adds to the believability.

Slow in and slow out – We see this principle being used when the ball rolls past the screen. It starts off fast then slows down near the end. This gives us a sense of reality.

Squash and stretch – We see this principle being used when the small lamp bounces up and down on the ball.

Anticipation – We see this principle being used when the big lamp rolls the ball off screen, then waits for the ball to roll back to him.

Staging – The background is dark with the characters in the light which automatically puts them in focus.

Exaggeration – We see this being used when the small lamp is repeatedly bouncing on the ball and when he tries to hold his balance on it.

Appeal – The clip is appealing in many ways, the main way is the way in which the small lamp acts. It acts like a cute little child which makes you want to watch the clip all the way through to see how his mischief will turn out.

Secondary action – We see this when the large lamp looks sad, it looks down and hunches its back.

Follow through and overlapping action – We see this when the little lamp bounds off the screen and the wire still wriggles.