Sunshine (2007) is a movie directed by Danny Boyle. The movie is a sci-fi thriller set in space. The crew of Icarus Two, the ship that the crew are in, is on mission to fly to our sun as it is dying. They have to fire an atom bomb, the size of Manhattan island into it, which will cause a chain reaction and restart the sun. They have been flying for over a year to reach the sun and hit what is called “The Dead Zone” which means they can no longer contact earth due to the solar storms caused by the sun. The crew of eight are then left to continue their mission without help. Before Icarus Two set off, another ship called ‘Icarus One’ was sent to complete their journey and were never heard from after they passed into the dead zone. No one knew why the first ship was unable to complete their mission, which is why Icarus Two is now doing it. The crew aren’t far from the sun when they get a distress call from the Icarus One, they decide to investigate. Pinbacker, the captain of Icarus One is still alive and manages to get onto the Icarus Two. Crazy and insane, Pinbacker begins to kill the crew off one by one and attempts to fail the mission. Capa manages to send the bomb into the sun and set it off, however he is inside the vessel which travel into the sun and dies with it. Below is a trailer of the film that I sourced from YouTube.

The movie to me is full of emotion. It is all about accepting your fate, and realising that you must make sacrifices for the ones you love to live on. Danny Boyle shows this theme of self sacrifice throughout the whole movie in many different ways.

The main way scene in which Boyle portrays this theme is in the death of Kaneda. Being the captain of the ship, Kaneda, assisted by Capa, have to repair some of the solar panels on the face of the ship as they have came loose. The ship alters the alignment with the sun to give them shadow to make this possible. The heat on the other side of the ship becomes too great and the intelligence on the ship tells them that it has to revert to the old alignment to keep the ship from getting damage. While Capa and Kaneda are still trying to repair the panels, the roof begins to revert, but they have to continue or the panels could set fire to the ship and destroy it. Kaneda orders Capa to leave and ultimately knows he doesn’t have enough time to get back inside if he fixes the panels. This is our first scene in the film of self sacrifice. Kaneda knows that he is going to die, for he must if the crew are to complete their mission. He not only does it for the crew, but for the sake of the human race. The video below is of his death.

The music in this scene is very important. It plays a major role in helping us understand what Kaneda is doing. He might be dying, which is sad, but he is doing it for the greater good. This music mirrors this by having a sad sound to it, but being loud and epic. It is a song of self sacrifice. Boyle also uses many different shot types to help you understand what is happening to Kaneda and why he is doing this. One of the main shots used is an over the shoulder shot. Boyle uses this to establish a perspective from inside of Kaneda’s suit. We see how scared and nervous he is with the sweat dripping off his head. By using doing this, we get to see how human he is. It adds to the idea of self sacrifice. It’s not just a death, it’s something he must do. This makes us empathise for the character. Also by using this shot, we see how exactly what Kaneda is seeing. It give us perspective and makes us completely understand what is going on.

Another important scene in the film is Capa’s death. Capa is the main character, and Boyle chose to strategically leave his until the end. Capa finally fires the bomb into the sun, along with himself. Capa knows that by he must manually set the bomb off from the inside of it. In the scene below, we see Capa start the bomb and his death.

This scene, unlike Kaneda’s death is alot lighter and happier. Boyle has done this to show that it is a relief. All the build up throughout the movie is let go, as the main mission is finally achieved. The theme of self sacrifice is still present in this scene. We mainly have panning shots during the tie of the explosion. This is to give us a sense of how big the explosion is, and how little Capa is. It is almost juxtaposition. Even though he is so small, he is still making the biggest sacrifice. Once the bomb has gone off we cut between shots behind Capa and close ups of his face. The close ups are extremely important as we see the emotions he is feeling. He isn’t sad at all. He is happy as he is going to achieve his goal and fix our planet. We know that he isn’t sad as his sister and nephews are on earth, so they will live their lives because of him, and this sacrifice that he makes. In this close up of Capa, his face is lighten up and his mouth is open. This is a symbol of him seeing the light and in awe at how beautiful it is. He is mesmerised with what he is seeing. He sees himself in the sun, the beauty of life, and how deadly it is. It is a representation of human life and how amazing yet deadly we have become.

Mace is the engineer on the ship, he dies due to the water coolant being broken. He must dive into the freezing water that cools the systems of the ship and submerge the system so they will come back online. The water is that cold that he dies. He knows that is going to die, and hates himself for having to, but knows it is for the greater good. The scene below this his death

We can see that Mace is struggling for life, while knowing he is going to die. Boyle show us this by zooming the camera out as Mace is struggling forwards in its direction. This is a representation of him being helpless. He is reaching out for the camera, which is a symbol of help, but we are moving away, he is trying so much but can’t grasp the help that he needs. We also get a close up of Mace’s face, the camera is juddering up and down, like his body. This shows us how cold Mace is, due to the freezing water, and the amount of struggling he is doing. We also have an offset shot of his foot under the water. By using an offset shot, Boyle creates a sense of unease and sickness. We can see blood in the water and Mace’s foot struggling as he is trying to get out. This adds to the unease that we feel. The music goes along perfectly with this scene, it goes up and down in a rhythmical type of way. This adds to the idea of him struggling for life, since he is moving up and down, trying to break free and survive. When he eventually realises he isn’t going to escape, the music dims down and goes very quiet. This is a representation of his life going quiet and being at its end.

The ships navigator, Trey, also dies. He commits suicide to make sure that the other live to complete their mission. With the oxygen garden gone, all the remaining crew members know that there isn’t enough air for them all to survive until they reach the sun. Trey slits his writs in the holographic room. In the video below, we see how the group reacts to Trey’s death.

Boyle continues to shows this theme of self sacrifice, even in this scene. Trey might be committing suicide, which is his own choice, but it is for the simple fact that he wants the other to continue. Boyle uses a close up on Mace’s face to show us how sad he is that one of his friends has died. He is relieved that they have enough oxygen to continue, by is saddened by the death of his companion. The close up shows us a side of Mace’s face, not the whole thing. I believe that this has been done to show us that Mace feels incomplete, he doesn’t feel whole because of this. We also have a reverse pyramid shot of Trey’s body, Cassie and Korazon. This reverse pyramid is a symbol of the loss of power. It shows us that the group is no longer structured, with Trey’s body right in the middle of it, almost being the cause of this loss.

Overall Boyle uses music and shots as the main way to portray this theme of self sacrifice. He shows us that all of the crew know the risks, and they accept them. They left earth with the chance that they might die, and follow through with that. Boyle not only brings us a beautiful film, but also an amazing sound track to accompany it. The music to me is just as important as it makes the emotions in each individual scene. To me the movie is a success as the characters are easily relatable. Even though they are astronauts who are doing an impossible mission, they are still human, with very human emotions. I love this movie as it left me with a sense of hope for human kind. We live in a world where the future looks dark, but we don’t think about the future of the future. The movie made me think that we could possibly get by the obstacles that we face, and live life without the worries of famine, global warming and financial recession.



Art and design have always had a major impact on technology. They are part of the creative process for how most pieces of technology is made, such as cars, computers, televisions and mobile phones. The two play major parts in the development of these and many other things. However, technology has also had a massive impact on the art and design world. It is a big influence in many peoples works and forever will be.

Alexander McQueen

The most prominent piece of work that has been influenced by technology was a piece by Alexander McQueen. The final of the Spring/Summer 1999 collation shows a model, Shalom Harlow, standing on a rotation board in the middle of a room. To either side of her is two large industrial spray painting robots. Harlow is wearing a white dress with some hair scrapped on her face. All of a sudden, the robots begin to fire paint on the beautifully simple white dress that she is wearing. Yellow and black paint goes all over the dress and even onto Harlow’s hair and face. To me it is so simple, yet says so much and speaks volumes. The piece is a symbol of technology and the impact that it has on our lives. It sprays her, which I believe is a representation of us being deep inside technology, almost like it covers us now. It plays such a major part in our lives that it is almost part of us, just like our skin. That is what McQueen was trying to show. McQueen is also telling us that technology can be beautiful and random. It doesn’t have to be ugly and completely thought out, which is what we think of it. The paint is fired in random directions, but still managed to create a gorgeous piece of work on the dress. It makes the dress look better by doing this, and it’s completely unplanned. The piece made me think about how technology can be used in unique ways to create art that we simply could not achieve without it. This piece wouldn’t have been possible without technology. Below is a video of the final piece that I sourced from YouTube.

Chris Metzen

The world of gaming has been majorly impacted by art. The biggest advancements are in the actual games themselves, the art of real life has influenced games and the technology used to create them. However, before the game is even being built, art is used to show how the game will look. Concept art for games is one of the most important things used to get a game to work and into a flow. The concept artists and designers work on creating landscapes, clothing for characters, animals, buildings and items. These are important things that make up the game and what it is all about. Without these concept artists and designers, the programmers would have nothing to go on and a game out simply not get on its feet.

One of the most important game artists to me in Chris Metzen. He works for Blizzard Entertainment and is Vice President of Creative Development at the company. Metzen works mainly on developing the Warcraft series and designing upcoming expansions. Back in summer 2010, Metzen done a concept piece of “Teldrassil”, which is a large island based in the Warcraft game. The piece shows the island at night, lighten up with torches and houses. Mainly purple, the piece stands out and is obviously recognisable as fantasy. This piece is extremely important as it gives the programmers an idea of how to build the game. It shows them how the game has to look in this specific area, such as colouring, textures and landscaping. To me it’s a stunning piece and it is visually appealing. It makes me think of how passionate we are about creating a different world that we all want to escape to. It is a representation of the desire that we have to create the perfect system and runaway into a place where everything is perfect and we don’t need to worry about our everyday lives. Below is an image of the piece that I sourced from google.

"Teldrassil" by Chris Metzen

Apple Inc.

Apple Inc is a company that is renowned for is designs. The products that come out of the Silicon Valley company are beautiful and so simplistic. The are built with functionality as the main objective, yet still remain to look brilliant and rival all other designs of the same type of technology. No company has ever been as innovative as Apple has been. I believe that Apple’s success has came down to their designs.

Apple’s iPhone 4 was an overhaul of the previous generation. It took what was already amazing about the iPhone, and made it better. By changing the design to be more cubic and sturdy, Apple made a massive leap forward in their already brilliant smart phone. Visually the phone is beautiful. With a glass front and back, the phone is amazingly shiny, which everyone wants their hi-tech mobile to be. The choice of coming in black or white makes the phone class, as it stays away from childlike colours which make it less appealing. The stainless steel around the device, which hold it all together and doubles as an antenna adds a richer look to it. It brings the iPhone forward and makes it look like technology from tomorrow. The steel works brilliantly will the white and black versions of the device, and take away from it being one major block colour. I personally love the iPhone 4 design. It sits perfectly in my hand, and is the most beautiful device that I have ever laid eyes on. The software works in tangent with the hardware and makes the experience fantastic. I think that Apple’s success has came down the the influence of the art and design world. Their devices are beautifully crafted and completely functional. The combination of both is extremely difficult and an area in which most companies fail. Being successful in this area makes Apple a successful company. Below is an image of the iPhone 4 in black and white that I sourced from google.

iPhone 4 in Black and White


Lee Alexander McQueen

Lee Alexander McQueen will always be one of the most influential designers of our modern age. His work was completely different to everyone else in the fashion industry, always. His command of colour and skills of drapery will forever be remembered. But most of all, McQueen will be remembered because of the romance and story that his collections told. Every piece being completely different, but a continuation from the last. The story was always told with Lee’s work, it was his main goal. Lee sadly passed away in February of last year, taking his own life and his brilliance with him. With the death of his two greatest inspirations, Isabella Blow, and his mother, Lee hit depression. He couldn’t get over that Blow had taken her own life. She was everything to Lee, he owed his life to her. Blow discovered him at his final show when he was graduating from Saint Martin’s in London. Loving the whole collection, Blow decided to purchase every piece, and make his dream to be a famous fashion designer come true. Blow was a fashion editor at the time and spared no expense in making Lee her protégé and well known throughout the art world. His major collection at this time was Highland Rape, which sent shock throughout the art world as it was so different and controversial. The collection showed women who looked like they had been raped. They had black eyes, ripped clothing and exposed vaginas and breasts. However, being so different, it propelled McQueen to instant fame. He was known immediately by all throughout the fashion world. To me, McQueen’s most important collection was The Girl Who Lived In A Tree. The collection had a direct break in the middle of it. The first half of the collection was almost Tim Burton like, with models being dress mainly in black, with a youthful darkness to them. They had massive black hair in afro’s and black eyes. All the models looked like they were from the middle east, with tanned skin. The outfits mainly consisted to be made of lace, leather and cloth. Below is an image from one of the models from the first half of the collection that I sourced from google.

One of the models from the first half of "The Girl Who Lived In A Tree"

The other half of the collection was the complete opposite. Caucasian women dressed in gorgeous dresses which looked like they were crafted for the royals. One of which even contained a strategically placed face of Queen Elizabeth. Gems and overly expensive jewellery was one of the main parts of this half of the collection, with every model wearing lots of it. They were made to look royal and part of the upper classes. In the middle of the catwalk was a giant tree made of cloth that twisted and contorted as it went upwards. This collection was clearly thought out, not just in the way of the dresses and pieces, but also on the level of makeup, stage design and accessories. It was a representation of the ladder of success. “How far up the tree of success are you?” was the main question. McQueen used the collection as a parallel between our modern day life. We live in a world where you can buy beauty and amazing things to make you look better. Gone are the days of natural beauty, everything is manufactured nowadays, and looks aren’t an exception. The first half of models were a representation of the middle eastern countries not having as much money as the west, and also not being as self conscious. The second half was a symbol of what the western world has become, with our looks becoming an obsession. We constantly worry about how we are perceived by others, how much money we own and how many materialistic things we possess. Below is an image of one of the models from the second half of the collection that I sourced from google.

A model from the second half of "The Girl Who Lived In A Tree"

The tree in the centre of the catwalk was a symbol for the ladder of success. The base of the tree represented low family incomes and people who could not care about less about their appearance, with the top of the tree representing rich, successful families who obsessed about their looks. There was also the question posed of “Could your success grow, just like the tree?”. Below is an image of the tree made of cloth that was on the catwalk, along with a video I found on youtube of the collection.

The stage for "The Girl Who Lived In A Tree"

The collection was a political statement. Is this who we have became? So money hungry that it’s all that we care about now. The collection was a success to me, firstly because the pieces were beautifully made, and secondly, because it was signature McQueen. He took the medium of fashion and pushed it. He brought back an idea and objective behind his clothes, which most fashion designers bar the Avant Garde hardly do now. The pieces made me think about the times me live in, and challenged my perception of not only others, but also myself. Have I too became one of the royals ontop of the tree?

Peter Howson

Peter Howson is a contemporary artist from Glasgow. Howson was born in 1958 and studied at Glasgow School of Art. His obsession is to depict the true, dark side of human nature. His work is very symbolic and representational. Looking literal at first glance, Howson’s work becomes much deeper and multi layer once you know how to read the codes and conventions that he uses. Religion is one of the main themes that run through most of his work. There is a definite divide in Howson’s work. This divide was caused because of the time he spent in Bosnia as a war artist. He has never truly recovered from the things that he seen there, and because of that, his work has changed. Although his work was already day, his pieces after the war were much sinister and took on many metaphorical meanings. In my opinion, his work speaks volumes and is one of the best artists to portray emotion, and how he felt at the time. By far one of the most influential painting by Howson is “The Crucifixion of Saint Andrew”.

"The Crucifixion of Saint Andrew" by Peter Howson

The piece shows Saint Andrew getting crucified with people around him watching. The grim painting portrays a very dark image of religion, and the lengths people will go to, to make their beliefs heard and known. The piece is very symbolic, even for Howson. One of the main symbols in the piece is the fish in the dirty water at the bottom of the painting. The fish was a way in which people could say that they were christian, to other christians without any others people finding out. It was a code and hidden message that they used to disguise their religion from other religions as you could be killed for your beliefs. The fact that the fish is dying in the painting has so much meaning. In my opinion, it is a metaphor for the dying of the religion itself. That Christianity was dying in this time against the romans. Howson is stating that it was a dying battle, that they couldn’t survive in that climate, just like the fish couldn’t in the dirty water. Also in the picture there is a gutter, with a red glow coming from inside of it. The gutter looks like it is almost looking up at one of the main people who is carrying out the crucifixion. In my opinion, Howson is trying to say that the people are in the gutter, they are all going to hell for what they have done. The red symbolises the fires of hell, and the place where they will all eventually end up. In my opinion, the piece is fantastic. I love the fact that Howson does not shy away from depicting humans as dark and evil, as I believe that those are very human behaviours. I also like that religion plays a major part in this piece, as it does with many others. It shows that Howson himself must be religious and that he is struggling with his beliefs, since the piece is so dark. Overall the piece is very attractive to me as it’s the type of work I truly enjoy, the dark colours and symbolic imagery is fantastic.

Neville Brody

Neville Brody is a british contemporary graphic designer. He was born in London in 1957 and stuided at London College of Painting. Brody is famous for his change on the graphic design world, he turned it on it’s head and added a new twist into what was the norm at the time. He now works as the Head of the Communication Art & Design department at the Royal College of Art in London. Brody caused outrage in the art world when he was commissioned to create a poster for an exhibition called “New French Painting”. The poster looks ordinary now, as times have changed, but back when it was show, the poster sparked anger and rage. The poster shows the words “New French Painting” with a large “X” next to it, with a small image and a white background. Nowadays this looks like the ordinary graphic poster advertising a gallery or exhibition, but at the time when it was made, it was completely different and revolutionary. During this time, and the times before, poster advertisements showed a large piece or many different pieces from the gallery on it. Brody’s didn’t. There was outrage by the commissioners as it did not fit the look for what posters should look like. Brody insisted that they keep it, and in the end, the did. More anger and rage at the poster came, but after a while, people realised that they poster itself was becoming more famous than the actual exhibition, and for good reason. First of all, it did not stick to the norm. It took the rule book, and threw it out of the window. Brody chose to show a tiny image of a piece of the exhibition in the poster as to spark interest. Why would you want to see a large image of something on a poster, then pay to go see the exact same thing? He thought it best to keep it mysterious, as to attract the potential customer, which it did. Second of all, the writing was very random, and looked like it was done with a paint brush, it wasn’t done in normal font. Brody thought it best to do this as to fit in with the name of the exhibition, to make it look painted, as the exhibition was of paintings. The poster is very successful in my opinion, not just because of the fact that it is one of the pieces that made Brody famous, but for the fact is that it achieves what it set out to day. It makes me interested and wonder about what the exhibition will entail. I think about what different types of paintings there will be since that all you can do as there is so much left to the imagination. If I seen this poster, I for one would definitely go to the exhibit, and with that fact alone, Brody has achieved the main goal.

Nicola Formichetti

Nicola Formichetti is a japanese italian fashion designer. He is famous for his works for the Mugler label as Creative Director, and his works with Lady Gaga. Formichetti’s father was italian and his mother was japanese, because of this, formichetti grew up in Tokyo and Rome. He loved his cultural inheritance and tried to combine the two at any chance he could get. With an ambition to move to London, Formichetti done whatever it took to get access to the country. He applied to study architecture in the city, but never attended as his dream was to become a fashion designer. He was thrusted into fame when the exact same thing thing happened to Lady Gaga. As soon as she became famous, so did he. She knew Formichetti before she was famous and they were best friends, he often made many of her outfits for her small, quiet bar gigs in New York City, where the two met. Gaga loves Formichetti’s work a lot, she collaborates with him a lot. My favourite collection by Formichetti was by far, “The Anatomy of Change”. The collection spoke to me so much and has so much meanings to it. Below is a video that has scenes of the collection and a fashion film combined that I sourced from YouTube.

To me the collection is all about the idea that we aren’t male or female. Our sexuality, race, gender aren’t defined at birth, it is something that we choose. Formichetti shows this by using Rico Genest. Genest is the main person, and main part of the collection. Completely compered in tattoos, Genest looks like a skeleton. Genest is shown in the beginning of the video covered in a layer of what looks like latex. Peeling this off, he is peeling off the stereo types in todays society and going back to the template of what a human is, the basic form of it. This shows us that he is no longer male or female and can become who ever he wants to be. Formichetti builds apon that by designing cloths that are masculine in look, but adds very feminine things to them, such as pearls. He uses silk trousers made of silk to show this swell, as these trousers are worn by women. By combining the two, Formichetti is showing us that we can be male, yet female. He is challenging our perceptions of gender identity. Also the fact that Genest looks like a skeleton or zombie is very important, it shows us that we can be reborn and transform ourselves into someone who is beyond a gender. The collection and fashion video made me think about who I am. As a gay person, i know very well that people have stereotypes of me. The collection showed me that I too can made my own self, which I have. I do not live up to the expectations of others, only the expectations of myself. The collection made me realise that I can become anyone who I want to be, as I define myself, not the culture that I live in, nor the people I am surrounded by.


By far, the biggest reaction to Modernism was the Pop Art movement, or what began then turned into the Pop Art movement. An exhibition in London called “This Is Tomorrow” was a reaction to Modernism. It showcased work from many artists such as Eduardo Paolozzi, Richard Hamilton and Peter and Alison Smithson. The exhibition was a complete redesign and change of Modernism, it took it in a new way as it was a reaction to it. One of the main pieces of the exhibiton was a collage made from iconic American images. This piece and the rest of the exhibition is hailed as the beginning of the Pop Art movement.

Pop Art was a rection to modernism. It seen how simplistic something could become, and it didn’t like it. The people who were associated with the Pop Art movement mustn’t have liked the lack of colour or artistic touch that the modernists had. The modernist designs were very bland and boring, but their idea’s were good. Thus, the Pop Art artists decided to mix the two, by sticking to the idea of simplisty but with a twist, and part of a redesign. Andy Warhol is a prime example of how artists reacted to the modernist movement. He too used simplictic ideas and shapes, but gave is emotion and feeling. He made simplistic things amazing to look at and be visually aesthetic. His famous painting of Marilyn Monroe (1953) was true to the ideasof the modernist, wtih sticking to keeping everything simple and basic, but he added his own look to it. Bright, bold and outrageous colours were used to give it a unique look and stand out against any modernist piece. I believe Warhol was inspired to make the piece bold and colourful because of the great depression. The times were difficult and people needed something new, a change in the works, and that’s exactly what this piece done. Below is an image of the Marilyn Monroe piece that Warhol created. As you can tell, it is a reaction to modernism as it takes it in a new direction.

Marilyn Monroe by Andy Warhol

In my oppinion, a development of modernism is conceptual art. It stays more than true to the ideology of modernism but takes it one step furter and subtracks even more. It subtracts to a basic level, the idea of something, and the representations of it. Joseph Beuys was a german artist who is hailed as the father of conceptualism. The idea behind conceptualism is that the idea of the final piece is more important than the working of it. It deals with alot of planning. Symbols and representations are important in this movement, which is why I consider it to be a development of modernism. Beuys was obsessed with representations, no more so than in his piece “The Pack” (1969). The piece shows a volkswagen with many artic sleighs coming out of it, in a formation. The sleighs have a torch on them and a piece of wrapped felt. All of these things are symbolic about the piece, as the piece as a whole was a representation of the near death experience that Beuys had. He crashed his place in World War Two and was luckily saved by the Nomadic people. They covered him in lard and wrapped him in felt to help keep him alive. This caused Beuys to have a serious appreciation for the nomadic people, and it bled into his work, just like “The Pack”. The sleighs in piece were in a military formation, this was done to symbolise the army that he was part of at the time, and the fact that he felt the exact same as everyone else. An image of “The Pack” is below.

"The Pack" by Joseph Beuys



The chair is a prime example of how the modernist changed the way that we look at an object or how we design it. Before the modernist movement, chairs were normally designed to be elegant and luxurious. Grand chairs had beautiful embroideries and amazing wood carvings. They were thought out for a long period of time with a lot of work going into the design of them. However, when the Bauhaus started their movement on the art world, chairs were one of the many objects to be completely redesigned and rethought of. With simplicity in mind, the modernists at the Bauhaus took away what was not needed in a chair, such as the beautiful carvings. They had the idea that function should be the main goal of an object, not how pretty it looks. With this, they began to rework the chair, making it simple. All that was truly needed for a chair to be functional was the part to sit on and the legs for it to sit balanced on the floor. Below is an image of one of the many chairs that was designed at the Bauhaus. The chair is radically different from any other chair that was created at the time.


The modern chair was born. Capable of mass production due to it’s simplicity and the fact that new materials were being used such as steel. The fact that it was so easy to manufacture helped make the modern chair a lot more popular and very affordable. This created a gap in the market, which company’s exploited. They knew that they could manufacture chairs on a grand scale as it would take a quarter the time to make just as many. This is how we have our chairs that we know everyday. We needed to make chairs fast, and that’s what the modernists at the Bauhaus brought us.



Frank Lloyd Wright was on of the main architects that helped push the modernist movement. He, like all other modernist, believe that function came over form. Meaning that something’s mean goal to objective, should come over how it looks or feels. It’s all about what the thing does, not
how it looks. With this as his main idea, Wright began to change the world of architecture. He decided that a building shouldn’t be so neoclassical and symmetrical, but that it should simply work. A building should be built from the inside out, with the subject of each room at heart. From example, ‘Fallingwater’, a building built in Pennsylvania that was designed by Wright, is all about simplicity and abstraction. The building completely blends into the surroundings and mimics the natural flow of the water. The building is a statement on the industrial age, and the modernist movement. It speaks about how we can use natural matierals, such as stone and wood to help create the simplistic buildings. Wright sourced stone in the area to help create the building, proving that a modernist building can still have a very natural feel to it. Below is an image of ‘Fallingwater’ water which I sourced from Wikipedia. As you can see, the building is very modern and almost looks futuristic, even to this day.

Fallingwater by Frank Lloyd Wright


The Bauhaus was one of many institutions at the forefront of modernism. Specialising in the arts and crafts, The Bauhaus moved onto the creation of many other different crafts and movements once they found their own way of thinking. They helped shape the modernist movement. They crafted objects such as chairs and kitchen utensils in their own way, with simplicity as the main feature. Klee taught at The Bauhaus. This artist style could not be defined as each painting was different. Some looked cudist, while others looked
surrealist or from some other different movement. His work was unique, he had his own style, but was helping to drive the modernist movement. Below is an image of one of his paintings, ‘Tale à la Hoffmann’. It is very evident in this image, that Klee had his style. At
first glance it looks cubist, with the very straight lines and cubic shapes, but then at a second glance, it looks almost like an abstraction piece, with the large blocks of colour and very little detail. Even though you could not determine what style or movement he fell under, he was definately a modernist. The painting helps back this up. It shows us the simplistity that Klee was famous for, the way in which there is very little detail, only the main lines of the objects. Very little tone has been used also, which shows that only the colour is important, not the tone or detail of it.

Tale à la Hoffmann by Paul Klee


Wyndham Lewis was a cubo-futurist painter who, aslong side Klee and Wright, helped shape the modernist movement. His paintings like Klee were very hard to classify to one movement. His work was prodeminantly cubist, but had a very pop art look to it also, with the bright colours and dark lines. Below is an image which he painted of himself entitled ‘Mr Wyndham Lewis’. The self portrait of Lewis stays true to his cubist style with the absqure angles and shape edges. The colouring is very pop art like and gives a new feel to the work. It, unlike most cubist
work, is very bright. Simply because of the yellow background. The mixture of these styles definately place Lewis as a modernist. His work was all about simplisty with very little detail. This is certainly not a traditional painting. It is modern. Lewis helped shape the modernist and to me, it looks like his work would have been an influence on Andy Warhol and artists within the pop art movement.

Mr Wyndham Lewis by Wyndham Lewis